The origin of the name Caesar is Greek
This is how Caesar is written in Greek:
Καῖσαρ = Kaisar
The biblical meaning of the name Caesar is: severed.
Caesar was a title of the Roman emperor
The name Caesar appears in the bible in the following verses:
Tell us therefore, What thinkest thou? Is it lawful to give tribute unto Caesar, or not?
They say unto him, Caesar‘s. Then saith he unto them, Render therefore unto Caesar the things which are Caesar‘s; and unto God the things that are God’s.
And when they were come, they say unto him, Master, we know that thou art true, and carest for no man: for thou regardest not the person of men, but teachest the way of God in truth: Is it lawful to give tribute to Caesar, or not?
And Jesus answering said unto them, Render to Caesar the things that are Caesar‘s, and to God the things that are God’s. And they marvelled at him.
And it came to pass in those days, that there went out a decree from Caesar Augustus, that all the world should be taxed.
Now in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, Pontius Pilate being governor of Judaea, and Herod being tetrarch of Galilee, and his brother Philip tetrarch of Ituraea and of the region of Trachonitis, and Lysanias the tetrarch of Abilene,
Is it lawful for us to give tribute unto Caesar, or no?
And he said unto them, Render therefore unto Caesar the things which be Caesar‘s, and unto God the things which be God’s.
And they began to accuse him, saying, We found this fellow perverting the nation, and forbidding to give tribute to Caesar, saying that he himself is Christ a King.
And from thenceforth Pilate sought to release him: but the Jews cried out, saying, If thou let this man go, thou art not Caesar‘s friend: whosoever maketh himself a king speaketh against Caesar.
But they cried out, Away with him, away with him, crucify him. Pilate saith unto them, Shall I crucify your King? The chief priests answered, We have no king but Caesar.
And there stood up one of them named Agabus, and signified by the Spirit that there should be great dearth throughout all the world: which came to pass in the days of Claudius Caesar.
Whom Jason hath received: and these all do contrary to the decrees of Caesar, saying that there is another king, one Jesus.
While he answered for himself, Neither against the law of the Jews, neither against the temple, nor yet against Caesar, have I offended any thing at all.
For if I be an offender, or have committed any thing worthy of death, I refuse not to die: but if there be none of these things whereof these accuse me, no man may deliver me unto them. I appeal unto Caesar.
Then Festus, when he had conferred with the council, answered, Hast thou appealed unto Caesar? unto Caesar shalt thou go.
But when Paul had appealed to be reserved unto the hearing of Augustus, I commanded him to be kept till I might send him to Caesar.
Then said Agrippa unto Festus, This man might have been set at liberty, if he had not appealed unto Caesar.
Saying, Fear not, Paul; thou must be brought before Caesar: and, lo, God hath given thee all them that sail with thee.
But when the Jews spake against it, I was constrained to appeal unto Caesar; not that I had ought to accuse my nation of.